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Why the C.R.A.P. test?

You know you are going to use Google for you research.  Google is a great resource for finding free information. However, you need to be aware of what you are looking at:

  • Who created the page? 
  • What is the purpose of the page?
  • What is the point of view of the page?
  • Is the page updated or static?
  • Are references provided?
  • Can you locate other articles or data that corroborate you information?

Also, please be aware that Google may not be able to answer all of your information needs.

C.R.A.P. test


  • Modern, historical, timeless
  • New event, historical precedence
  • Do they even provide a date?


  • Just someone's OPINION
  • Bias, agenda, perspective
  • Transparency
  • Author provide citations for quotes or data?


  • Who wrote/created it?
  • Credentials, i.e. author's education, experience, affiliation? 
  • Who is the publisher, university, think tank...?
  • Does their experience match their topic?


  • Article's intent, i.e., to sell or persuade.
  • What is the web domain, i.e. .gov, .com. .org., .edu.
  • Are there ads present?
  • Is the author presenting fact or opinion?

Related Guides

C.R.A.P. test in action